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Mehr Informationen. The name "zamba" refers to a colonial term for zambo people that are descendants of Amerindian and African people.
It is therefore called zamba because its lyrical content was aimed at its native listeners. It came to Argentina through "Alto Peru," a region that is modern day Bolivia and through Chile between and The Zamba is a slow dance in three-quarter time played primarily on guitar and bombo legüero.
The steps of the dance are a walking step, an alternate step two steps at one time , and a tip toe alternate step or "sobrepaso punteado" three steps at one time.
The Zamba also requires a handkerchief. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Zumba or Samba. Aires Nacionales in Spanish.
Danzas Tradicionales Argentinas -Una Nueva Propuesta- in Spanish. Vilco SRL. Music genres in the Hispanosphere.
A two-stage election held in October and December resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties.
The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new National Assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise.
The federation was dissolved on 31 December , and in January , Kaunda won the only election for Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia.
The Colonial Governor , Sir Evelyn Hone , was very close to Kaunda and urged him to stand for the post.
Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on 24 October , with Kenneth Kaunda as the first president. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges.
Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise.
This expertise was provided in part by John Willson CMG  There were over 70, Europeans resident in Zambia in , and they remained of disproportionate economic significance.
Kaunda's endorsement of Patriotic Front guerrillas conducting raids into neighbouring Southern Rhodesia resulted in political tension and a militarisation of the border, leading to its closure in On 3 September , civilian airliner, Air Rhodesia Flight , was shot down near Kariba by the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army ZIPRA.
Rhodesia responded with Operation Gatling, an attack on Nkomo's guerilla bases in Zambia, in particular, his military headquarters just outside Lusaka; this raid became known as the Green Leader Raid.
On the same day, two more bases in Zambia were attacked using air power and elite paratroops and helicopter-borne troops. Until the completion of the railway, Zambia's major artery for imports and the critical export of copper was along the TanZam Road, running from Zambia to the port cities in Tanzania.
The Tazama oil pipeline was also built from Dar es Salaam to Ndola in Zambia. By the late s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal.
Rhodesia's predominantly white government, which issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in , accepted majority rule under the Lancaster House Agreement in Civil strife in both Portuguese colonies and a mounting Namibian War of Independence resulted in an influx of refugees  and compounded transportation issues.
The Benguela railway , which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to Zambian traffic by the late s. Zambia's support for anti-apartheid movements such as the African National Congress ANC also created security problems as the South African Defence Force struck at dissident targets during external raids.
In the mids, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide.
In Zambia's situation, the cost of transporting the copper great distances to the market was an additional strain.
Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but, as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt.
By the mids, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.
In June riots against Kaunda accelerated. Many protesters were killed by the regime in breakthrough June protests. Following multiparty elections, Kaunda was removed from office see below.
In the s, the economy stabilised, attaining single-digit inflation in —, real GDP growth, decreasing interest rates, and increasing levels of trade.
Much of its growth is due to foreign investment in mining and to higher world copper prices. All this led to Zambia being courted enthusiastically by aid donors and saw a surge in investor confidence in the country.
Politics in Zambia take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Zambia is both head of state and head of government in a pluriform multi-party system.
The government exercises executive power, while legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October From to , Zambia's president had been Michael Sata, until Sata died on 28 October After Sata's death, Vice President Guy Scott , a Zambian of Scottish descent, became acting President of Zambia.
On 24 January , it was announced that Edgar Chagwa Lungu had won the election to become the 6th President in a tightly contested race.
He won After independence in , the foreign relations of Zambia were mostly focused on supporting liberation movements in other countries in Southern Africa , such as the African National Congress and SWAPO.
During the Cold War , Zambia was a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Zambian Defence Force ZDF consists of the Zambia Army ZA , the Zambia Air Force ZAF , and the Zambian National Service ZNS.
The ZDF is designed primarily against external threats. In , Zambia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
Zambia is divided into ten provinces , which are further divided into districts , constituencies and 1, wards. The government is sensitive to the opposition and other criticism and has been quick to prosecute critics using the legal pretext that they had incited public disorder.
Libel laws are used to suppress free speech and the press. Same-sex sexual activity is illegal for both males and females in Zambia.
In December , it was reported that United States Ambassador to Zambia Daniel Lewis Foote was "horrified" by Zambia's jailing of same-sex couple Japhet Chataba and Steven Samba.
After an appeal failed and the couple was sentenced to 15 years in prison, Foote asked the Zambian government to review both the case and the country's anti-homosexuality laws.
Foote faced a backlash and canceled public appearances after he was threatened on social media, and was subsequently recalled after President Lungu declared him persona non grata.
Zambia is a landlocked country in southern Africa, with a tropical climate , and consists mostly of high plateaus with some hills and mountains, dissected by river valleys.
A very small area in the northeast forms part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Rukwa in Tanzania. In the Zambezi basin, there are a number of major rivers flowing wholly or partially through Zambia: the Kabompo , Lungwebungu , Kafue , Luangwa , and the Zambezi itself, which flows through the country in the west and then forms its southern border with Namibia , Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Its source is in Zambia but it diverts into Angola, and a number of its tributaries rise in Angola's central highlands. The edge of the Cuando River floodplain not its main channel forms Zambia's southwestern border, and via the Chobe River that river contributes very little water to the Zambezi because most are lost by evaporation.
Two of the Zambezi's longest and largest tributaries, the Kafue and the Luangwa, flow mainly in Zambia. Their confluences with the Zambezi are on the border with Zimbabwe at Chirundu and Luangwa town respectively.
Before its confluence, the Luangwa River forms part of Zambia's border with Mozambique. From Luangwa town, the Zambezi leaves Zambia and flows into Mozambique, and eventually into the Mozambique Channel.
The Zambezi valley, running along the southern border, is both deep and wide. From Lake Kariba going east, it is formed by grabens and like the Luangwa, Mweru-Luapula, Mweru-wa-Ntipa and Lake Tanganyika valleys, is a rift valley.
The north of Zambia is very flat with broad plains. In the west the most notable being the Barotse Floodplain on the Zambezi, which floods from December to June, lagging behind the annual rainy season typically November to April.
The flood dominates the natural environment and the lives, society, and culture of the inhabitants and those of other smaller, floodplains throughout the country.
These plateau areas of northern Zambia have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as a large section of the Central Zambezian miombo woodlands ecoregion.
Eastern Zambia shows great diversity. The Luangwa Valley splits the plateau in a curve north-east to south-west, extended west into the heart of the plateau by the deep valley of the Lunsemfwa River.
The border of the Congo Pedicle was drawn around this mountain. The southernmost headstream of the Congo River rises in Zambia and flows west through its northern area firstly as the Chambeshi and then, after the Bangweulu Swamps as the Luapula , which forms part of the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Luapula flows south then west before it turns north until it enters Lake Mweru. The lake's other major tributary is the Kalungwishi River , which flows into it from the east.
The Luvua River drains Lake Mweru, flowing out of the northern end to the Lualaba River Upper Congo River. Lake Tanganyika is the other major hydrographic feature that belongs to the Congo basin.
Its south-eastern end receives water from the Kalambo River , which forms part of Zambia's border with Tanzania.
This river has Africa's second highest uninterrupted waterfall, the Kalambo Falls. Zambia is located on the plateau of Central Africa , between and m above sea level.
The climate of Zambia is tropical, modified by elevation. In the Köppen climate classification , most of the country is classified as humid subtropical or tropical wet and dry , with small stretches of semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west and along the Zambezi valley.
The modifying influence of altitude gives the country pleasant subtropical weather rather than tropical conditions during the cool season of May to August.
There are numerous ecosystems in Zambia, such as forest, thicket, woodland and grassland vegetation types.
There are an estimated 3, species of wild flowering plants, consisting of sedges, herbaceous plants and woody plants . The Northern and North-Western provinces of the country especially have the highest diversity of flowering plants.
A total of mammal species are found in the country, with most occupying the woodland and grassland ecosystems.
The Rhodesian giraffe and Kafue lechwe are some of the well-known subspecies that are endemic to Zambia. An estimated bird species have been seen in the country, of which are either resident or Afrotropic migrants; breed in the country; and are non-breeding migrants.
The Zambian barbet is a species endemic to Zambia. Roughly known fish species, belonging to 24 fish families , have been reported in Zambia, with Lake Tanganyika having the highest number of endemic species.
The country had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7. As of the Zambian census , Zambia's population was 13,, Zambia is ethnically diverse, with 73 distinct tribes.
During its occupation by the British between and , the country attracted immigrants from Europe and the Indian subcontinent, the latter of whom came as indentured workers.
While most Europeans left after the collapse of white minority rule, many Asians remained. In the first census—conducted on 7 May —there were a total of 1, Europeans; 39 Asiatics and an estimated , Africans.
Black Africans were not counted in the six censuses conducted in , , , , , and , prior to independence. By there were 65, Europeans; 5, Asiatics; 5, Coloureds and an estimated 2,, Africans.
In the population census, The fertility rate was 6. The onset of industrial copper mining on the Copperbelt in the late s triggered rapid urbanisation.
Although urbanisation was overestimated during the colonial period, it was substantial. Economic decline on the Copperbelt from the s to the s has altered patterns of urban development but the country's population remains concentrated around the railway and roads running south from the Copperbelt through Kapiri Mposhi, Lusaka, Choma and Livingstone.
The population comprises approximately 73 ethnic groups,  most of which are Bantu -speaking. Many groups are small and not well known.
However, all the ethnic groups can be found in significant numbers in Lusaka and the Copperbelt. In addition to the linguistic dimension, tribal identities are relevant in Zambia.
The tribal identities are nested within the main language groups. Immigrants, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens of British descent, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired.
There were 70, Europeans in Zambia in , but many have since left the country. Zambia has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians and Chinese.
There are 13, Indians in Zambia. This minority group has a massive impact on the economy controlling the manufacturing sector.
An estimated 80, Chinese are resident in Zambia. Zambia has a minority of coloureds of mixed race. During colonialism, segregation separated coloureds , blacks and whites in public places including schools, hospitals, and in housing.
There has been an increase in interracial relationships due to Zambia's growing economy importing labor. Coloureds are not recorded on the census but are considered a minority in Zambia.
According to the World Refugee Survey published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , Zambia had a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 88, The majority of refugees in the country came from the Democratic Republic of the Congo 47, refugees from the DRC living in Zambia in , Angola 27,; see Angolans in Zambia , Zimbabwe 5, and Rwanda 4, Beginning in May , the number of Zimbabweans in Zambia began to increase significantly; the influx consisted largely of Zimbabweans formerly living in South Africa who were fleeing xenophobic violence there.
Zambia is a Christian nation according to the constitution,  but a wide variety of religious traditions exist.
Traditional religious thoughts blend easily with Christian beliefs in many of the country's syncretic churches. Christian denominations include Catholicism, Anglicanism , Pentecostalism , New Apostolic Church , Lutheranism , Jehovah's Witnesses , the Seventh-day Adventist Church , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Branhamites , and a variety of Evangelical denominations.
These grew, adjusted and prospered from the missionary settlements Portuguese and Catholicism in the east from Mozambique and Anglicanism British influences from the south.
Except for some technical positions e. After Frederick Chiluba a Pentecostal Christian became president in , Pentecostal congregations expanded considerably around the country.
Counting only active preachers, Jehovah's Witnesses in Zambia have over , adherents  with over , attending their annual observance of Christ's death in These have been preaching there since One in 11 Zambians is a member of the New Apostolic Church.
The exact number of Zambian languages is not known although many texts claim that Zambia has 73 languages or 73 languages and dialects.
The figure 73 languages is probably due to a non-distinction between language and dialect using the criterion of mutual intelligibility.
If this criterion was used, the number of Zambian languages would probably be about 20 or 30 only, . The official language of Zambia is English , which is used for official business and instruction in schools.
The main local language, especially in Lusaka, is Nyanja Chewa , followed by Bemba. In the Copperbelt Bemba is the main language and Nyanja second.
Bemba and Nyanja are spoken in the urban areas in addition to other indigenous languages which are commonly spoken in Zambia. These include Lozi , Kaonde , Tonga , Lunda and Luvale , which feature on the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation ZNBC local languages section.
The total number of languages and dialects spoken in Zambia is Urbanisation has had a dramatic effect on some of the indigenous languages, including the assimilation of words from other languages.
Urban dwellers sometimes differentiate between urban and rural dialects of the same language by prefixing the rural languages with 'deep'.
Most will thus speak Bemba and Nyanja in the Copperbelt; Nyanja is dominantly spoken in Lusaka and Eastern Zambia.
This evolution of languages has led to Zambian slang heard throughout Lusaka and other major cities. The majority of Zambians usually speak more than one language, the official language, English, and the most spoken language in the town or area they live in.
Portuguese has been introduced as a second language into the school curriculum due to the presence of a large Portuguese-speaking Angolan community.
A German course has been introduced at the University of Zambia UNZA. The right to equal and adequate education for all is enshrined within the Zambian constitution.
Fundamentally, the aim of education in Zambia is to promote the full and well-rounded development of the physical, intellectual, social, affective, moral, and spiritual qualities of all learners.
Adult Literacy programs are available for semi-literate and illiterate individuals. The government's annual expenditure on education has increased over the years, increasing from Over the same period, the under-5 mortality rate dropped to 75 from per 1, live births.
Most rural Zambians are subsistence farmers. Zambia ranked th out of countries on the Global Competitiveness Index , which looks at factors that affect economic growth.
Zambia fell into poverty after international copper prices declined in the s. The socialist regime made up for falling revenue with several abortive attempts at International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs SAPs.
After the Kaunda regime, from successive governments began limited reforms. The economy stagnated until the late s. In Zambia recorded its ninth consecutive year of economic growth.
Inflation was 8. Zambia is still dealing with economic reform issues such as the size of the public sector , and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.
The bureaucratic procedures surrounding the process of obtaining licences encourages the widespread use of facilitation payments.
Initially, Zambia hoped to reach the HIPC completion point, and benefit from substantial debt forgiveness, in late In January , the Zambian government informed the International Monetary Fund and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatisation of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities.
Although agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from late to early , at the earliest.
In an effort to reach HIPC completion in , the government drafted an austerity budget for , freezing civil service salaries and increasing the number of taxes.
The tax hike and public sector wage freeze prohibited salary increases and new hires. This sparked a nationwide strike in February The Zambian government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry.
This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro-power.
In July , Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Zambia's President Edgar Lungu signed 12 agreements in capital Lusaka on areas ranging from trade and investment to tourism and diplomacy.
The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper mining industry. The output of copper had fallen to a low of , metric tons in after a year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatisation.
In , following the privatisation of the industry, copper production rebounded to , metric tons. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings.
The Zambian government has recently [ when? Agriculture plays a very important part in Zambia's economy providing many more jobs than the mining industry.
A small number of white Zimbabwean farmers were welcomed into Zambia after their expulsion by Robert Mugabe, whose numbers had reached roughly to people as of [update].
The skills they brought, combined with general economic liberalisation under the late Zambian president Levy Mwanawasa , has been credited with stimulating an agricultural boom in Zambia.
In , for the first time in 26 years, Zambia exported more corn than it imported. Zambia has some of nature's best wildlife and game reserves affording the country with abundant tourism potential.
The North Luangwa , South Luangwa and Kafue National Parks have one of the most prolific animal populations in Africa.
The Victoria Falls in the Southern part of the country is a major tourist attraction. With 73 ethnic groups, there is also a myriad of traditional ceremonies that take place every year.
In , Zambia generated Prior to the establishment of modern Zambia, the inhabitants lived in independent tribes, each with its own way of life.
One of the results of the colonial era was the growth of urbanisation. Different ethnic groups started living together in towns and cities, influencing each other's way of life.
They also started adopting aspects of global or universal culture, more especially on dressing and mannerism, .
Much of the original cultures of Zambia have largely survived in rural areas with some outside influence such as Christianity being widely practiced.
Cultures that are specific to certain ethnic groups within Zambia are known as 'Zambian cultures' while those life styles that are common across ethnic groups are labelled 'Zambian culture' because they are practiced by almost every Zambian, .
In the urban setting, there is a continuous integration and evolution of these cultures to produce what is called "Zambian culture". Zambia practices several ceremonies and rituals ranging from nationally recognised traditional ceremonies to unrecognised yet important ceremonies.
Much of the ceremonies and rituals are performed on special occasions celebrating or land marking achievements, anniversary, passage of time, coronation and presidential, atonement and purification, graduation, dedication, oaths of allegiance, initiation, marriage, funeral, birth ceremonies and others, .
Like most African countries, Zambia practices both disclosed and undisclosed ceremonies and rituals. Among the disclosed ceremonies and rituals include calendrical or seasonal, contingent, affliction, divination, initiation and regular or daily ceremonies, .
Undisclosed ceremonies include those practiced secrete societies such as spiritual groups such as Nyau and Makish dancers , traditional marriage counsellors such as alangizi women, .
As of December , Zambia had 77 calendrical or seasonal traditional ceremonies recognized by government and this number will increase in the near future, .
These known as Zambian traditional ceremonies. Some of the more prominent are: Kuomboka and Kathanga Western Province , Mutomboko Luapula Province , Kulamba and Ncwala Eastern Province , Lwiindi and Shimunenga Southern Province , Lunda Lubanza North Western , Likumbi Lyamize North Western ,  Mbunda Lukwakwa North Western Province , Chibwela Kumushi Central Province , Vinkhakanimba Muchinga Province , Ukusefya Pa Ng'wena Northern Province.
Popular traditional arts are mainly in pottery, basketry such as Tonga baskets , stools, fabrics, mats, wooden carvings, ivory carvings, wire craft, and copper crafts.
Most Zambian traditional music is based on drums and other percussion instruments with a lot of singing and dancing.
In the urban areas, foreign genres of music are popular, in particular Congolese rumba , African-American music and Jamaican reggae.
Several psychedelic rock artists emerged in the s to create a genre known as Zam-rock , including WITCH, Musi-O-Tunya, Rikki Ililonga, Amanaz, the Peace, Chrissy Zebby Tembo, Blackfoot, and the Ngozi Family.
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services In Zambia is responsible for the Zambian News Agency , while there are also numerous media outlets throughout the country which include; television stations , newspapers , FM radio stations , and Internet news websites.
Sports and games are common social aspects of the Zambian culture s that brings people together for learning, development of skills, fun and joyous moments, .
Sports and games in Zambia include but not limited to football, athletics, netball, volleyball and indigenous games such as nsolo, chiyenga, waida, hide and seek, walyako, and sojo, .
These are some of the indigenous games that support socialisation. All these sports and games are part of the Zambian culture s.
The fact that the games are played by more than one person makes them social and edutainment events, . The history of some of these games is as old as Zambians themselves.
However, Zambia started taking part in popular global sports and games mainly in summer olympics, . Zambia declared its independence on the day of the closing ceremony of the Summer Olympics , thereby becoming the first country ever to have entered an Olympic game as one country, and leave it as another.
In , Zambia participated for the thirteenth time in the Olympic games. Two medals were won. The medals were won successively in boxing and on the track.
In Keith Mwila won a bronze medal in the light flyweight. In Samuel Matete won a silver medal in the metre hurdles. Zambia has never participated in the Winter Olympics.
Football is the most popular sport in Zambia, and the Zambia national football team has had its triumphant moments in football history.
At the Seoul Olympics in , the national team defeated the Italian national team with a score of 4—0.